Information about Androgenic Hormones and Their Associations
Testosterone, the hormonal substance produced by the testicles, the adrenal cortex and the ovary, stimulates the development and functions of the male genital glands. In urine, it is mostly eliminated as 17-ketosteroids. Testosterone is the most active androgen, present at a 20-fold higher level in the male body than in the female. Its excess secretion by the adrenal glands or by the ovaries leads to a woman’s hirsuteness (excessive development of the hairy system) or other manifestations of virilism. In boys, excessive production of these hormones can lead to early puberty.
Synthetic androgens are used to treat testicular insufficiency, severe dandruff states, aplazie, disappearance of blood-forming cells in the spinal cord, inoperable breast cancers, etc. Virilization synthesis androgens may be distinguished from nonvirilizing agents. The first are contraindicated in men with prostate cancer and women of childbearing age. In fact, they can cause undesirable effects such as virilism and cycle disorders in women, preterm puberty in children, edema, acne to the fetus, masculinisation of a female fetus. Syndrome androgen can be administered orally, percutaneously or parenterally.
Androstendione is an important precursor in androgen and estrogen hormone biosynthesis. The hormone is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland (production that is controlled, at least partially, by ACTH) and also by testicles and ovaries (independent of ACTH) from DHEA-S of adrenal origin.
Increased concentrations of adrenergic androgenic hormones are caused by the excessive production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, which are converted to testosterone in extragranular tissues, responsible for most virilizing effects. Increased levels of androstendione cause symptoms and / or signs of hyperandrogenism in women, men being usually asymptomatic, occasionally having gynecomastia due to peripheral conversion of androgen into estrogen. The clinical manifestations of androgenic excess are: hirsuteness, oligomenorrhea, acne and other signs of virilization (masculine form of the body, muscular development, voice thickening, alopecia, clitoromalgia).
Excess endogenous anabolic hormone:
It may be associated with the variable secretion of other adrenal hormones, and may therefore appear as a “pure” virilizing syndrome or a “mixed” syndrome associated with increased glucocorticoid production and Cushing’s syndrome.
Androstendione is increased in cases of hirsutism, Stein-Leventhal syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome), Cushing’s syndrome, ACTH-producing ectopic tumors, suprarenal adenomas or carcinomas, ovarian hyperplasia, osteoporosis in women. About 60% of cases of female hirsutism are characterized by elevations in androstenedione.